Mexican Wolf Definitions
American Zoo and Aquarium Association. An association of zoological parks and aquariums in North America that governs over 100 facilities and oversees the governance of the SSP’s and other captive breeding programs.
Arizona Game and Fish Department. One of the state agencies that participates in the management of the Mexican gray wolf in the recovery area.
Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. This includes all of the Apache National Forest and all of the Gila National Forest. This area includes over 4 million acres of mountain,s forests, and grasslands within the historic Mexican wolf range in the U.S.
The confirmed killing or maiming of lawfully present domestic livestock on federal, state, tribal, or other public lands, or private lands by one or more wolves or other predators.
Any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and which is formally listed as endangered under the ESA.
Endangered Species Act of 1973. A Congressional Act which provides for the listing, protection, and recovery of endangered and threatened fish, wildlife, and plants.
Experimental Non-Essential Population
This designation of the ESA allows the Service greater flexibility in their management of a species, that may deal with specific impacts, respond to particular needs of the reintroduced population, and to address local concerns. Examples may include livestock depredations or land-use restrictions.
An inpidual animal or plant that is from an original (often wild) population , that had no known relationship to any inpiduals in the population, except for its own descendants. As of 2008, this number is 7 for the Mexican wolf population.
Hard release
The immediate and direct release of wolves into a new environment.
Interagency Field Team. This team is comprised of personnel from all agencies involved in managing Mexican wolves in the wild. These agencies include AGFD, NMDGF, USFWS, USDA, and WMAT. The IFT is directly responsible for daily management of Mexican wolves in the recovery area.
Mexican Gray Wolf
One of the five recognized subspecies of gray wolves found in North America. This subspecies is the most genetically unique and endangered of the five subspecies. Other common names include Mexican wolf and lobo. For more information about the Mexican wolf, see Mexican Gray Wolf.
Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan
A document that is prepared by the Mexican Wolf Recovery Team, that outlines the tasks and actions necessary to recover the subspecies within parts of its former range. The original plan was completed in 1982 and is currently being rewritten by the Recovery Team.
New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. One of the state agencies that participates in the management of the Mexican gray wolf in the recovery area.
The act of illegal take of an animal, either one that is taken out of season, by illegal means or methods, or by the fact they are listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern.
Pre-release facility
A unique facility that is designated by the Service, to be used to maintain any wolf that is going to be released into the wild. Wolves managed at these facilities are not open to the public and manage the species to ensure the highest likelihood of success once in the wild. Wolves that are potential candidates for release into the wild are evaluated based on their genetic makeup, reproductive performance and various behavioral criteria.
Primary Recovery Zone
Recovery zone that allows for naïve wolves to be released. These animals have had no previous experience in the wild.
Recovery of a species through natural movement into an area, not influenced by human intervention.
The act or process of restoring threatened or endangered species to a non-threatened or non-endangered status.
The release of a species into an area that was part of their probable historic geographic range, but from which they have declined or disappeared, for the purpose of establishing a new wild population. Click here for more information about how this relates to "recolonization."
Secondary Recovery Zone
Recovery zone that allows for wolves to disperse, or to allow for transfer of previously released wolves
Soft release
The release of wolves to the wild from a temporary pen, where they have been held for a period of time to acclimate to the area of the release. The duration of acclimation may vary from several weeks to several months.
Standard Operating Procedure. The purpose of an SOP is to standardize how a particular task, process, or situation is handled. This is important to make sure that there is consistency in how different issues surrounding the management of Mexican wolves in the wild are conducted. They are also important to ensure that the agencies and their staff are in compliance with law, policy, etc. Lastly, the SOP’s help ensure that actions are conducted safely, under the appropriately authority, and that data are collected and analyzed consistently. For a complete list of the SOP’s that relate to the Mexican gray wolf, see SOP.
Species Survival Plan. The SSP began in 1981 as a cooperative population management and conservation program for selected species in zoos and aquariums in North America. Each SSP manages the breeding of a species in order to maintain a healthy and self-sustaining captive population that is both genetically perse and demographically stable. SSPs also participate in a variety of other cooperative conservation activities, such as research, public education, reintroduction and field projects. For more information, see SSP.
Click here for detailed definition.
Any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Wildlife Services. Federal agency that is involved in determining depredation causes to livestock in the recovery area, including damage caused by wolves.
United Species Fish and Wildlife Service. The federal agency that is charged with overseeing the recovery of endangered fish, plants and animals. USFWS is a department within the Department of Interior and often referred to as the Service.
White Mountain Apache Tribe. One local tribe in the BRWRA that is involved in allowing wolves to inhabit tribal land. The tribe is also involved in field activities of the Mexican wolf, and their management.